ASA Sections on:
airports.csv describes the locations of US airports, with the fields:
iata: the international airport abbreviation code
countryin which airport is located.
long: the latitude and longitude of the airport
This majority of this data comes from the FAA, but a few extra airports (mainly military bases and US protectorates) were collected from other web sources by Ryan Hafen and Hadley Wickham.
Listing of carrier codes with full names: carriers.csv
You can find out information about individual planes by googling the tail number or by looking it up in the FAA database. plane-data.csv is a csv file produced from the (some of) the data on that page.
Meteorological data is available from (among many others) NOAA and weather underground. The call sign for airport weather stations can be constructed by adding K to the airport code, e.g. KORD, KLAX, KSEA.